Specular microfacet distributions have been successfully employed by many authors for representing glossiness of materials. They are generally combined with a Lambertian term to account for the colored aspect. These representations make use of the Fresnel reflectance factor at the interface, but the transmission factor at the interface should also be managed. One solution is to employ a multi-layered model with a single layer for the rough interface, which requires a numerical simulation for handling the multiple reflections of light between the substrate and the interface. In this paper, we propose rather to use a representation corresponding to a Fresnel interface lying on a Lambertian substrate, for which the multiple reflections of light between the interface and the substrate can be expressed analytically. With this interfaced Lambertian model, we show how Fresnel transmission affects the material appearance for flat and rough surfaces with isotropic and anisotropic distributions, that produce light backscattering effects. We also propose a methodology for using such materials in any physically based Monte Carlo rendering system, as well as an approximate representation, suitable for GPU applications or measured data fitting. Our approach generalizes several previous models, including flat Lambertian materials as well as specular and Lambertian microfacets. Our results illustrate the wide range of materials that can be rendered with this representation.
Rendering Rough Opaque Materials with Interfaced Lambertian Microfacets D. Meneveaux, B. Bringier, E. Tauzia, M. Ribardiere, L. Simonot
To appear in IEEE Transaction on Visualization and Computer Graphics - Volume 24, Issue 3, March 2018 ( publisher link